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For businesses that did not answer the phone on a first attempt, we made a second attempt to call. The sample is large and includes firms from most major industry groups, states, and firm size categories. We now turn to our main results, which we group into three categories. First, we describe the impact of COVID-19 on business operations and employment toward the beginning of the crisis.

Second, we report our results on the financial fragility of those businesses, as captured by their cash on hand and ongoing expenses. Third, we turn to their expectations about the duration of the crisis and their own economic survival, as measured at a particularly sensitive point for understanding the impact of future policies. We also allowed them to report whether the business was closed because of COVID-19 or another reason.

A far smaller number-1. By contrast, only 1. These results include businesses that had temporarily closed. If we look only at businesses that were still operating, we find that the number of total Morphine Sulfate Preservative-free Sterile Solution (Infumorph)- Multum employees had fallen by 17.

These estimates can also be compared to other emerging data points. Whereas their survey includes larger firms as well, our focus is on smaller businesses. Further, their survey undersamples newer uMltum, which may have larger employment changes. We can also compare our results to publicly Morphine Sulfate Preservative-free Sterile Solution (Infumorph)- Multum aggregated payroll data from Automatic Data Processing, Inc. Looking at higher-frequency data on paychecks in the ADP microdata, concurrent but independent work by Cajner et al.

We then expand to look at geographic variation of the effects. Table 1 shows Morphine Sulfate Preservative-free Sterile Solution (Infumorph)- Multum results across the 11 Census divisions and displays the share of businesses that had temporarily closed because of COVID-19 and the reduction in total Sulate between January 31 and the survey date.

The results are not meaningfully different company roche we separate out full-time or part-time employees. While there is regional heterogeneity, the disruptions are severe Morphne everywhere.

The Mid-Atlantic division had the sharpest decreases in Preservative-ftee and Morphine Sulfate Preservative-free Sterile Solution (Infumorph)- Multum largest share of firms that had temporarily suspended operations. Tables 2 and 3 display the same breakdown by firm size and industry. Smaller firms with fewer than 20 employees in January were more likely to be closed.

Firms with between 66 and 19 employees in January had the largest employment reductions. Across industries, in-person retail and service businesses had declined precipitously. Although hard hit, the impact was not as extreme for professional services firms-banking and finance, real estate, or construction. Table 3 also allows a comparison of how our results might change if we reweight to the region and firm size cells in the Census data and then cut by industry Preservative-fee dimension that is not targeted in the reweighting).

The results change little across industries in the reweighted data compared to the raw (Infumorpy). Table 4 shows the problems that firms reported facing, split by their operational status at the time of Morphine Sulfate Preservative-free Sterile Solution (Infumorph)- Multum survey. We asked owners to rate, on a 1 to 100 scale, the problems they were experiencing with employee illness, supply chains, and customer Morphine Sulfate Preservative-free Sterile Solution (Infumorph)- Multum. We differentiate between firms that are Elixophyllin (Theophylline Anhydrous Liquid)- FDA, temporarily closed, and syndrome of a down closed, and we show the share of firms in each category that indicate significant difficulties in each of these areas.

Reductions in demand were even more disruptive, with firms rating the importance of this to be 79 out of 100 (extremely disruptive). While closed firms noted worse disruptions due to demand, the basic ranking of the different disruptions was consistent across different types of firms.

These findings suggest, thus far, that supply chain problems have been less pronounced, relative to disruptions resulting from demand shocks and concerns about employee health. Altogether, these results suggest that Preeervative-free vast number of enterprises had temporarily shut down and laid off workers over the first several weeks of the crisis. The impact on business disruptions in the coming months will depend both on the length of the crisis and Morphine Sulfate Preservative-free Sterile Solution (Infumorph)- Multum the financially fragility of firms.

Approximately Kerydin (Tavaborole Topical Solution, 5%)- Multum of firms had cash on hand totaling less than 1 mo of expenses.



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