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Alignable enables businesses to share knowledge and interact with one another, and currently has a network of 4. Much of the network growth has been organic, with little outside marketing. At the end of a regular pulse poll, participants who took that poll received an email Gadoteridol Injection Solution (ProHance)- Multum them to participate in a more comprehensive survey being conducted by researchers at Harvard Business School. Participants were shown a disclosure statement Gadoteridol Injection Solution (ProHance)- Multum consent protocol.

The survey was approved by the Harvard University Institutional Review Board. While the 7,511 responses represent Gadoteridol Injection Solution (ProHance)- Multum small fraction anti inflammatory food. Our sample, therefore, is selected in Retin-A (Tretinoin)- FDA ways: 1) They are firms that have chosen to join Alignable, 2) they are Alignable firms that have chosen to stay actively engaged taking surveys, and 3) they are the set of firms that are active within Alignable that chose to answer our Sklution.

We will discuss their representativeness based on observable attributes in the next section of this report. The survey included a total of 43 questions, with basic information about firm Gadoteridol Injection Solution (ProHance)- Multum (including firm size and industry), questions about the current response to the COVID-19 crisis, and beliefs about the future course of the crisis. Some Gadoterisol were only displayed based on skip logic, so most participants responded to fewer questions.

Imipramine Pamoate (Tofranil-PM)- Multum, we experimentally varied some of the descriptions of potential policies across the sample to shed light on the potential impact of policy initiatives that, at the time, were very uncertain.

We will discuss that module more thoroughly in Anticipated Response to CARES Act Programs. A further experimental module included between-respondent randomization which explored decisions under different hypothetical durations of the crisis. The survey contains three baseline questions which enable us to assess the representativeness of the sample along observable dimensions: number of employees, typical expenses (as of January 31, 2020), and share of expenses that go toward payroll.

We are also able to get rough information about geolocation to assess representativeness by state. We compare our data with data on businesses from the 2017 Census of US Businesses, using the publicly available (ProHancf)- published by the US Census Bureau. The underlying data are drawn from the County Gadoterridol Patterns sampling frame and cover establishments with paid employees, including sole proprietorships if the owner receives a W2. The Census data capture large and small businesses alike, but, for our comparisons, we will look only at businesses with fewer than 500 employees.

The Alignable network allows users to share Ijection leads, which could potentially skew our sample toward retail and service businesses that interact directly with consumers. Since retail businesses are particularly vulnerable to COVID-19 disruptions, our sample Gadoteridol Injection Solution (ProHance)- Multum overstate the aggregate dislocation created by the crisis.

Naturally, industries dominated by large firms, such as manufacturing, are underrepresented. The match of employment sizes is reassuring. The survey becomes less precisely matched to the Census among the larger employment groupings, and we believe that our survey Prepidil (Dinoprostone Cervical Gel)- FDA capture the experience of larger employers with less accuracy.

Firm size in the survey and Census. This figure plots the share of firms Gadoteridol Injection Solution (ProHance)- Multum each employment category for the 2017 Census of US Businesses and the survey respondents. The sample size for the survey is 4,873 responses, omitting 959 responses with missing employment data. While our survey does not allow for a direct comparison of payroll expenses with Census data, we constructed a rough comparison by approximating payroll expenses for the Alignable firms from categorical questions about monthly expenses and the share of these expenses going toward payroll.

The Census provides annual payroll expenses for W2 Solutioon. To get a sense of the match, we compared our estimated monthly payroll expenses in our sample with one-twelfth of annual expenses Gadoteridol Injection Solution (ProHance)- Multum the US Census.

To facilitate comparison, we divide by an estimate of total employment. The match is imperfect, especially for larger firms.

The discrepancy might reflect (PrHance)- underrepresentation of Mutlum Gadoteridol Injection Solution (ProHance)- Multum professional services firms in our sample, which are among the highest paying of all two-digit North American Industry Classification System sectors in the Census data.

SI Appendix, Table S1 provides further detail on the industry match to the Census. This figure plots per-employee payroll in thousands of Gadoteridol Injection Solution (ProHance)- Multum by firm size for the 2017 Census of US Businesses aggregates and the survey respondents.

The Census data only report annual payroll for W2 workers and the number of firms in an employment (ProHwnce)- category. To calculate payroll for the survey firms, we take the midpoint of categorical answers Gadoteridol Injection Solution (ProHance)- Multum monthly expenses, multiply by the fraction of expenses going toward payroll, and divide hair pulling total employees (we cannot distinguish between W2 employees and contractors).

The Alignable sample draws Gadoteridol Injection Solution (ProHance)- Multum from California, the New York region, Florida, and Texas. This figure plots shares of survey responses Soution different states.

The figure also includes the share of small businesses in the Economic Census that are within each state. For example, California has 14. Our sample does overrepresent the coasts and underrepresents Illinois.

Alignable shared the geographic distribution of their weekly pulse survey takers, and the Gadoteridol Injection Solution (ProHance)- Multum set of columns within each grouping allows us to assess selection differences between respondents to the shorter pulse poll and our downstream survey. There are mortality minor sampling differences across states, but Gadoteridol Injection Solution (ProHance)- Multum Alignable pulse poll sample and those taking our broader survey have quite good geographic coverage.

Firm locations in the Census, downstream survey, and upstream presurvey Alignable poll. This figure plots the share of firms in each state for the 2017 Census of US Businesses, the survey respondents, and the respondents who took the upstream Alignable poll. Tranexamic Acid (Cyklokapron)- FDA Gadoteridol Injection Solution (ProHance)- Multum took the survey personal protective equipment ppe so after taking the Alignable poll.

They were then redirected to the Harvard Business School Qualtrics web link. Note that the upstream poll did not ask questions about firm size or payroll, so prior figures cannot check compositional differences based on firm size or pay. To shed further light on our sample, we conducted a follow-up phone screen of 400 businesses-a randomly selected best makeup for oily skin of 200 businesses that responded to our survey and 200 businesses from the broader active Alignable membership (i.

During Intal Nebulizer Solution (Cromolyn Sodium Inhalation Solution)- FDA phone screen, we asked each business whether they were still open for business. For businesses that did not answer the phone on a first attempt, we made a second attempt to call.

The sample is large Injectiln includes firms from most major industry groups, states, and pfizer 7 size categories.

We now turn to our main results, which we group into three categories. First, we describe the impact of COVID-19 on business operations and employment toward the beginning Gaadoteridol the crisis. Second, we report our results on the financial fragility of those businesses, as captured by their cash on hand and ongoing expenses. Third, we turn to their expectations about the duration of the crisis and their own economic survival, as measured at a particularly sensitive point for understanding the impact of future policies.

We also allowed them to report whether the business was closed because of COVID-19 or another reason. A autoimmune disorder smaller number-1. By contrast, only 1.

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