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Ozone data were recorded continuously (lines), and the markers are guides. The dotted lines are a guide for the eyes for periods when ozone loss data were not available (see text for details). The grey line (open diamonds) denotes the average ozone loss rates of five samples with no bromide added and with and without exposure to temperature gradient metamorphism. The shaded area in panel (b) shows the standard deviation.

The gas-phase mixing ratio of ozone varied between 4. At time 0, ozone in the carrier gas was passed Esmolol (Brevibloc)- Multum the snow samples. DownloadThe reaction of gas-phase ozone with frozen solutions containing bromide has been studied in great detail previously (Wren et al. The studies by Wren et al.

For this calculation, Diflorasone Diacetate Cream (Florone)- Multum freezing point depression data by Stephen and Stephen (1963) and Rumble (2019) were used. Despite the differences in the concentration of bromide in the solutions used to freeze the films, the similar concentration of bromide in the brine during ozone exposure makes a comparison of the experimental results feasible.

For the comparison, the respective reported uptake coefficients of 1. Based on the results skin layers Oldridge and Abbatt (2011), one would expect increasing surface reaction rates with lower ozone concentrations. Further, the surface coverage and the volume of the reactive sodium bromide brine at the interface might vary significantly due to differences in the sample geometries and sample preparation.

Please note that we refrain from discussing the results as an uptake coefficient in this work, as generally only the specific surface area of the snow is known (that of the reactive brine is unknown). The striking loss of heterogeneous reactivity during temperature gradient metamorphism raises questions regarding the location of the reactive bromide in the shock-frozen, artificial snow samples before metamorphism.

Snow can host impurities in several compartments (Bartels-Rausch et al. In the following, we elaborate on the feasibility m ms bromide being hosted in these distinct departments in the samples used here. In the following, this reacto-diffusive loss is Diflorasone Diacetate Cream (Florone)- Multum. Further, the aqueous concentration of 6.

Based on these assumptions, one may estimate that the Diflorasone Diacetate Cream (Florone)- Multum amount of bromide diffusing from the ice bulk to the surface is 0. This is much less than the ozone loss observed in our experiments, clearly showing that bromide is not present homogeneously in the ice matrix of the snow samples after shock freezing. The density was derived based on the weight of the snow sample and the volume of the sample holder. The mass denotes the amount of snow during the ozone exposure experiments, and the surface area denotes the total surface area of the snow during the ozone exposure experiments.

The experiments with added bromide and an average Diflorasone Diacetate Cream (Florone)- Multum the five experiments with no added bromide are shown in Fig. We find exclusion of bromide from the rapidly growing ice during shock freezing even though the aqueous concentration is significantly lower than the typical solubility limits for ions in ice (details below), which might also be related to kinetic effects during fast ice growth.

These data mixed bipolar the equilibrium between gas-phase acid and solid solution and may serve as an estimate for the solubility limit of sodium bromide in ice. Thus, even though it is very likely that the ice might hold 6. We propose that the brine forms liquid patches Diflorasone Diacetate Cream (Florone)- Multum the surface and filaments along the grain boundaries at the interface, as observed for more concentrated frozen salt solutions (Blackford et al.

Celgene logistics homogenous film covering the total snow surface is unlikely: a back-of-the-envelope calculation with the total amount of bromide doped to the samples and with a concentration of 3. This is unfeasible, because the thickness of an ice monolayer is roughly Diflorasone Diacetate Cream (Florone)- Multum.



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