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If there’s one thing I love, it’s a good Metro/Subway/Underground map. Some of them are design classics and really shouldn’t be messed with (London especially). Others have flaws, but are mostly tolerable (Boston not naming all stations on the Green Line really annoys me, but the rest of the diagram is quite well done).

Delving further, it became obvious to me that there are also some serious inaccuracies on the current DC Metro diagram: whether these are because of space restrictions or error, I don’t know. Friendship Heights on the Red Line should straddle the border of the District, not sit well outside it, as should Southern Avenue on the Green Line. The next station out on the Green Line, Naylor Road, also sits very close to the border in reality – something not indicated at all on the current map, which just heads on out in a straight line. And why are the District/County border lines exactly the same shade of grey as the Capital Beltway road?

Another huge problem for legibility is the number of different angles that type is set at. We have station names set horizontally, at 45° degrees reading up from the left AND at 45° down from the left. And where type can’t quite fit at those angles (I’m looking at you, Foggy Bottom-GWU and Farragut West), the designer cheats and changes the angle.

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In many European cities much tramway infrastructure was lost in the mid-20th century, though not always on the same scale as in other parts of the world such as North America. Most of Eastern Europe retained tramway systems until recent years but some cities are now reconsidering their transport priorities. In contrast, some Western European cities are rehabilitating, upgrading, expanding and reconstructing their old tramway lines. Many Western European towns and cities are also building new tramway lines.

In North America, especially the United States, trams are generally known as streetcars or trolleys; the term tram is more likely to be understood as a tourist trolley , an aerial tramway , or a people-mover .

Streetcar lines were largely torn up in the mid-20th century for a variety of financial, technological and social reasons. (See also the Great American Streetcar Scandal .) Exceptions include New Orleans, Newark , Seattle , Philadelphia (with a much smaller network than once had existed), Boston, and San Francisco. Pittsburgh kept most of its streetcar system serving the city and many suburbs until January 27, 1967, making it the longest-lasting large-network U.S. streetcar system.

If there’s one thing I love, it’s a good Metro/Subway/Underground map. Some of them are design classics and really shouldn’t be messed with (London especially). Others have flaws, but are mostly tolerable (Boston not naming all stations on the Green Line really annoys me, but the rest of the diagram is quite well done).

Delving further, it became obvious to me that there are also some serious inaccuracies on the current DC Metro diagram: whether these are because of space restrictions or error, I don’t know. Friendship Heights on the Red Line should straddle the border of the District, not sit well outside it, as should Southern Avenue on the Green Line. The next station out on the Green Line, Naylor Road, also sits very close to the border in reality – something not indicated at all on the current map, which just heads on out in a straight line. And why are the District/County border lines exactly the same shade of grey as the Capital Beltway road?

Another huge problem for legibility is the number of different angles that type is set at. We have station names set horizontally, at 45° degrees reading up from the left AND at 45° down from the left. And where type can’t quite fit at those angles (I’m looking at you, Foggy Bottom-GWU and Farragut West), the designer cheats and changes the angle.

Vegetation communities in a bioregion that are consistently associated with a particular combination of geology, landform and soil.

Manipulating fire to create or protect desirable landscape features and habitats has become of primary importance at all levels of land management.

A detailed description of the structure and composition of remnant regional ecosystems and their component vegetation communities.